Philosophy of philosophy can be defined as an inquiry into the nature of reality. It usually deals with questions about human knowledge, including those concerning knowledge acquisition, the relation of ideas and knowledge, and the nature and source of scientific knowledge. Philosophy of philosophy aims to provide explanations for the existence and necessity of some things and for others. It also tries to identify the philosophical questions that concern important issues concerning knowledge and society.
The philosophy of philosophy attempts to answer fundamental questions concerning the nature of reality. It also tries to answer other questions about human nature, such as how to know things, why we act so as to achieve certain ends, the sorts of moral obligations that we have, and the kinds of explanations that can be given for phenomena. A variety of approaches are available to Philosophy of philosophy. Some philosophers have denied reality as a whole, and some have claimed to know reality as it is only in part, while rejecting determinism and free will. Many philosophers have made claims about the ultimate nature of reality.
Philosophy of society generally takes as its premise the idea that the society exists because of human institutions, beliefs, and practices, which have been established and sustained over time by society. It further assumes that the society exists because of the laws and values that are universally understood and accepted by all individuals. According to this philosophy, the society is made up of individuals who are rational, cooperative, and interact freely within a structure of social organization that respects the basic needs of all. In short, the society exists because people act in a way that satisfies a number of universal needs.
The society exists because it has established rules and guidelines that individuals and groups to follow in order to ensure the protection and support of their basic needs. These rules and guidelines may be in the form of rules about how one may behave towards each other, or rules regarding the manner in which goods and services are acquired, or rules concerning the conduct of economic activity. A further assumption is that these rules were originally adopted for the benefit of society as a whole. Individuals follow these rules in the expectation that they will enjoy a favorable response from the society. As such, the rules are considered rational, necessary, and inevitable for the well being of the society.
Philosophy of society further assumes that the elements of society-the individual and the group – are conceived of as relations of mutual interest and free association. In doing so, it follows that society exists because individuals are members of a vast network of reciprocal relationships and associations. This network is composed of the family, the extended family, friends, colleagues, neighbors, the workplace, and the religious and political organizations that are part of the wider community. Each member of the network plays a role in the life of others and contributes to the maintenance of the common good. Each member of the network tends to value the others and acts to maintain the social union against the threats and degradation of others. The social union therefore tends to provide the resources and sustenance to all members of the network.
According to philosophers of society, human beings are social animals. They live in communities, form relationships with one another, and cooperate in order to survive. The idea that one individual can exist without the other in the modern world is rejected. In this way, philosophy of society believes that human beings are inherently social animals.
Philosophers of society believe that human beings are social animals because they are members of a society. When one does not belong to a society or group, one does not have an identity; one suffers from the impersonal loss of a true and proper identity. Rather than depending on a society to provide its members with a sense of self, humans depend on what they call “folk psychology” to provide them with a sense of who they are. In this way, the loss of a human identity results in the person being identified with a particular body rather than with the society. Therefore, the concept of a human being as a distinct individual with a unique personal identity is disregarded by those philosophers of society.
According to these philosophers of society, human beings are social animals because they need the society in order to survive and thrive. If a man lives a solitary life, he will be unable to survive. However, if a man lives in a community, there is a kind of bond that enables him to be part of a group. In this way, the concept of individualism and the concept of membership in a group are denied by these philosophers of society. In order for a person to be part of a group, he must identify himself as a member of the group.